Week 2: Monks and Boats

Bestiary A work describing animal species and providing their allegorical signification
Easter controversy A disagreement within the early medieval Church on the correct dating of Easter
Echtrae (pl. echtrai) Lit. “outing”; an Irish genre in which individuals undertake journeys to the otherworld
Grimm’s Law A sound law explaining the divergence between Germanic and other Indo-European consonants, as in eat and edere, fish and piscis
Immram (pl. immrama) Lit. “rowing about”; an Irish monastic genre in which individuals sail off and encouter otherworld islands
Papar Irish priests; the term is often used to refer to ascetics inhabiting out-of-the way maritime locations
Pelagianism The belief that individuals may overcome sin by the strength of their own will
Penitential A tariff list matching specific sins to their respective compensations, by rank of sinner and wronged party
Peregrinatio (pro Christo/amore Dei) A self-imposed exile in pursuit of personal salvation
Public penance A non-repeatable, public penitential system for grave sins used up to the seventh century. Penitents were excluded from communion as well as from various functions and interactions.
Sacrament of penance A repeatable, private penitential system developed in the eleventh century. The processes of contrition, confession, satisfaction, and absolution can absolve any sinner of most sins.
Synod A council of bishops; in British and Irish tradition, attended also by abbots and scholars
Tariff penance A repeatable, private penitential system with fixed tariffs based on the nature of the sin, the rank of the sinner, and the rank of the wronged party. Originating in the British/Irish Churches, it became Catholic practice in the seventh century.
Verner’s Law A modification to Grimm’s Law explaining some of the differences between Indo-European and Germanic consonants by the fact that the former used free stress, the latter root stress (i.e. fixed, initial stress)