Session 1: Introduction

Agglutinative languageA language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio that adds information by adding additional morphemes onto words (e.g. Finnish)
Analytic languageA language with a low morpheme-per-word ratio; it adds grammatical information by adding more words (e.g. Chinese, English)
Early Modern English c. 1500–1700
Fusional languageA language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio that overlays multiple inflectional morphemes (i.e. different kinds of grammatical information) within its inflecting morphs (e.g. Latin, German)
LanguageA system of symbols
Middle Agesc. 500–1500
Middle Englishc. 1150–1500
MorphemeThe smallest meaning-carrying element in a language
Old Englishc. 450–1150
PhoneticsThe study of the physical properties of speech, its production, and reception
PhonologyLanguage-specific rules about how sounds combine
PragmaticsThe study of language in its context
Proto-Germanic (PG)A reconstructed language from which all Germanic languages have developed
Proto-Indo-European (PIE)A reconstructed language from which most European languages have developed
Synthetic languageA language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio