Session 2: Phonetics and Phonology

Acoustic phonetics The study of the production of speech
Affricate A plosive followed by a fricative when they form a single phoneme: /ʧ/, /ʤ/
Allophone One possible realization of a phoneme: [ɹ], [tʰ], [iˑ], [iː]
Alveolar A speech sound produced with the front of the tongue pressed against the alveolar ridge: /t/, /s/
Approximant A speech sound consisting in near-contact between two speech organs: /r/
Articulatory phonetics The study of the production of speech
Auditory phonetics The study of the aural reception of speech
Bilabial A speech sound produced with both lips pressed against each other: /b/, /p/, /m/
Continuant (sonorant) A consonant without perceptible friction: /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/, /r/
Digraph A combination of two letters representing a single sound: <ea>, <oo>
Diphthong A gliding vowel, i.e. an unobstructed sound that changes its place of articulation in the course of its production: /ɑʊ/, /ɔɪ/
Egressive pulmonic airstream An outflow of breath from the lungs
Fricative A speech sound consisting in a considerable oral constriction of the airstream: /s/, /ʃ/, /ð/
Glottal Produced with modulation (esp. closure) of the glottis other than voicing
Grapheme The smallest meaning-distinguishing unit in ordinary writing; a letter
Labiodental A speech sound produced with the (upper) teeth pressed against the (lower) lip: /f/, /v/
Lateral A speech sound that allows the airflow to escape along the sides of the tongue: /l/
Ligature Two graphemes (i.e. letters) joined together into one: <æ>, <œ>
Minimal pair A set of two words of the same language, differing in one sound only and thereby proving the status of the two differing sounds as phonemes of the language in question: <bit>, <bid>
Monophthong A static vowel, i.e. an unonbstructed sound with a single place of articulation: /æ/, /uː/
Nasal A continuant produced with persistent blockage of the oral cavity: /m/, /n/, /ŋ/
Palatal A speech sound produced with the front of the tongue pressed against the hard palate: /j/, [c]
Phone Any speech sound, regardless of its status within a language’s phonological system
Phoneme The smallest meaning-distinguishing unit of language
Plosive (or stop) A speech sound consisting in an oral blockage and release of the airstream: /p/, /d/, /g/
Semivowel A speech sound produced (almost) like a vowel, but classified phonologically as a consonant: /j/, /w/
Syllable Smallest rhythmical unit of speech, usually clustered around a vowel: pal·mis·try (phonological division), palm·ist·ry (morphological division)
Syllable stress Relative prominence in the production of a syllable; in English, expressed through volume, pitch, and length
Velar A speech sound produced with the back of the tongue pressed against the soft palate: /g/, /k/
Vocal tract The channel of organs involved in the production and modulation of speech
Voicing Vibration of the vocal cords in the production of a sound