Session 3: Grammar and Syntax

Adjective Qualifies a noun: grey, slow, abstract
Adverb Qualifies a verb (i.e. describes how something is being done), adjective, or other adverb: slowly, hardly
Aspect The grammatical expression of an action’s relation to time: simple, progressive, perfective, nonperfective
Case Grammatical category applied to nominals to classify their syntactic functions, in some languages marked by inflexion: der, den, dem, des
Closed word class A part of speech to which no new words are regularly added: article, preposition, auxiliary verb
Cognitive grammar An approach to linguistics that understands language as an abstract symbolic system directly rooted in the same cognitive processes used for other thought processes and thus not routed through a syntactic subsystem as proposed by generative grammarians
Conjunction Defines the relationship between two words, phrases, or clauses: and, because
Function word A word with mainly grammatical reference: article, pronoun, preposition, auxiliary verb, conjunction
Gender Division of (some) nominals into the classes feminine, masculine, and neuter
Grammaticalization The adaptation of a lexical item into a grammatical element (e.g. dummy do)
Generative (transformational) grammar A linguistic model postulating an innate set of syntactic rules from which all linguistic utterances are generated, involving a transformation from an underlying deep structure to the apparent surface structure
Interjection Isolated utterance with no syntactic connection to the surrounding content
Lexical word A word referring to concepts outside of language: noun, (non-auxiliary) verb, adjective, adverb
Modality Grammatical expression of possibility, likelihood, or necessity
Mood Verbal category expressing whether an utterance is an assertion of fact (expressed by the indicative mood), possibility or indirect assertion (subjunctive), or command (imperative)
Nominal A noun, pronoun, adjective, or article
Noun Someone or something involved in the action
Number The grammatical expression of singularity or plurality
Numeral Part of speech mathematically quantifying nominals; divided into cardinal (five) and ordinal (fifth) numerals
Open word class A part of speech to which new words are still regularly added: noun, adverb
Part of speech Word class, by function
Phrase structure rules A set of rules for parsing syntactic structures, defining the constitution of phrases with a view to finding structural correspondences across languages: S → NP VP
Preposition Defines the relationship between two or more nominals: in, from
Pronoun A word standing in for a noun
Tense The grammatical expression of an action’s point in time: present, past/preterite, future
Verb Action word: describes what is being done
Voice Verbal category expressing whether a construction is active or passive
X-bar Theory A model of phrase structure postulating an element X̄ (commonly written X') governing the head and optional complement of each phrase