Session 11: Early Modern English

Dummy do The verb do used as an auxiliary, adding no semantic value: She doth ride “she rides”
Great Vowel Shift A series of diphthongizations and (consequent) raisings of English long vowels, the most important of which took place between 1350–1700. The diphthongization of /uː/ to /aʊ/ and /iː/ to /aɪ/ prompted the lower vowels to rise. This explains the disconnect between spelling and pronunciation in words like see, make, mouse.