articulatory describes the production of speech
acoustic describes the physical properties of speech
auditory describes the reception of speech

Articulatory Phonetics

oral and/or nasal cavity

(vocal cords)

egressive pulmonic airstream


/m/ bilabial
/n/ alveolar
/ŋ/ velar

Stops / Plosives

/p/ voiceless bilabial
/b/ voiced bilabial
/t/ voiceless alveolar
/d/ voiced alveolar
/k/ voiceless velar
/g/ voiced velar


/f/ voiceless labiodental
/v/ voiced labiodental
/θ/ voiceless dental
/ð/ voiced dental
/s/ voiceless alveolar
/z/ voiced alveolar
/ʃ/ voiceless postalveolar
/ʒ/ voiced postalveolar
/h/ voiceless glottal


/ʧ/ postalveolar
/ʤ/ postalveolar


/w/ bilabial semivowel
/j/ palatal semivowel
/r/ postalveolar approximant
/l/ lateral
phone any speech sound, regardless of its status within a language’s phonological system
phoneme the smallest meaning-distinguishing unit of (a given) language
allophone one possible realization of a phoneme
unit notation purpose
graphemic transcription <keener> Written communication
phonemic transcription /'kiːnə/ Specifying the general pronunciation of a string of speech at the phonemic, meaning-distinguishing level in terms of phone, accent, and vowel length
phonetic transcription ['ciːnə] Specifying a specific realization of a string of speech as produced by a speaker or group of speakers at the allophonic level

Minimal Pairs

/b/ and /p/ bit pit
/ɪ/ and /iː/ bid bead
/d/ and /t/ bid bit