|headclause: SVO||Jack eats carrots.|
I know [that Jack eats carrots].
|adv + headclause: SVO||
Then Jack ate a carrot.
adv + headclause: VS
(only with certain intransitive verbs)
|Then came the aftershock.|
|imperative: VO||Eat your greens!|
|interrogative with to be: VS||Why was he here?|
|interrogative with aux.: vSV||What have I done?|
|headclause SVO||God lufode Iācob.|
|headclause VSO||Wæs hē Osrices sunu.|
|headclause SOV||Þū þæt cwǣde.|
|subclause SOV||Ic wāt [þæt þū mē gehȳrst].|
|adv + headclause VSO||Ðā slōg se wind þone lēg on þæt hūs.|
|adv + headclause SV||Þā sēo fǣmne cwæð: …|
|adv + headc. + prep. VSiO||Þā cwæð se engel tō hyre: …|
|adv + headclause + prep. ViOS||Þā cwæð him hǣlend tō: …|
|prep. + headclause VSO||On þǣre tīde cwæð Petrus …|
|prep. + headclause SVO||On ðǣm dǣge hē gemētte āne ēa.|
|subclause SiOV||Ic wāt [þæt hē inc ābolgen wyrð].|
|subclause iOVS||Ic wāt [þæt ūs cymð se Mæssias].|
|imperative VSO||Ne et ðū of þām trēowe!|
|headclause SVO||Adam clepide alle thingis.|
|headclause VS||And maad is euen and moru, the thrid day.|
And God saiȝ [that it were good].
Whan men bigunnen to be multiplied vpon the erthe, …
|adv + headclause SVO||Than Noe vndirstode that wateres hadden cesyd vpon erthe.|
adv + headclause VS
||Than came Hernyer the traytour.|
|imperative: VO||Honour thi fader and thi moder.|
Where art thow?
Whi comaundide God to ȝow, that ȝe shulden not ete of ech tree of paradis?
Generative (transformational) grammar: A linguistic model postulating an innate set of syntactic rules from which all linguistic utterances are generated, involving a transformation from an underlying deep structure to the apparent surface structure.
[Deep Structure] → [Subsystem] → [Surface Structure]
Cognitive grammar: An approach to linguistics that understands language as an abstract symbolic system directly rooted in the same cognitive processes used for other thought processes and thus not routed through a syntactic subsystem.
Phrase structure rules: A set of rules for parsing syntactic structures, defining the constitution of phrases with a view to finding structural correspondences across languages.
S → NP VP: A sentence consists of a noun phrase followed by verb phrase.
NP → (Det) (A) N (PP): A noun phrase consists of a noun preceded by the optional elements determiner and adjective and followed by the optional element prepositional phrase.