The Lexicon

Loan Resistance

English computer mobile phone/cell phone
Dutch computer mobiele telefoon/mobieltje
German Computer/Rechner Handy
French ordinateur téléphone mobile
Finnish tietokone matkapuhelin/kännykkä
Icelandic tölva farsími

Medieval Loans: Celtic

Medieval Loans: Latin

Medieval Loans: Old Norse

Medieval Loans: French

~900 pre-1250 (Norman), ~10,000 after; especially higher-register lexical words:

Lexical Competition

OE ey ↔ ON egg
OE þēah ↔ ON þó
NF reward ↔ CF regard
NF wile ↔ CF guile
Latin debita (< dēbitum) ↔ French dette

(Early) Modern Loans: Science

(Early) Modern Loans: Culture and Food

(Early) Modern Loans: Law, Military, Politics

(Early) Modern Loans: General

(Early) Modern Loans: Trade, Art

Semantic Field

Consociated Versus Dissociated Lexicon

Base Word Derivative Base Word Derivative
Mund mündlich mouth oral
Gesetz gesetzlich law legal
Zahn Zahnarzt tooth dentist

Normalization of Foreign Morphemes

Today’s Lexicon

Image CC-BY-NC Randall Munroe

Image source CC-BY-NC Randall Munroe