Session 1: Orthography and Phonology

Stem The form of the word to which inflectional suffixes are added; it thus excludes inflectional suffixes but includes thematic vowels and any modifications of the root caused by thematic vowels and/or inflectional suffixes, e.g. hǫnd-
Root The semantic core of a word, stripped of inflectional endings, thematic vowels, and their effects on the root form, e.g. hand-
Thematic vowel A vowel appearing between root and inflectional ending either in a word’s present form or in a reconstructed earlier form. Indo-European nouns, adjectives, and verbs can have thematic vowels, but in Old Norse it is only nouns and weak verbs that show their effect.