Session 2: Language and Literature

Alliterative long line A Germanic verse form with two verses to a line, linked by alliteration. Each verse has two lifts; at least one of the lifts in the a-verse should alliterate with the first lift of the b-verse.
Continuous gloss A word-for-word translation of an entire text, produced by writing translations of individual words (typically) in between the lines
Drop A rhythmically unstressed position
Futhorc The Anglo-Frisian runic script
Gloss A translation or explanation of a word, often written over the word in a manuscript
Hypermetric verse A verse with more syllables than can be accounted for within the typical metrical system of the Germanic alliterative long line
Kenning A circumlocution which, in its strictest definition, consists of a base-word that does not fit the context and a modifier that explains how the base word is to be understood; thus “bone house” is a kenning for body
Lift A rhythmically stressed position
Stress words Word classes that always receive rhythmic stress in Germanic alliterative verse: nouns, adjectives, nonfinite verbs, and some adverbs and pronouns
Zoomorphic initial A large initial letter executed by means of animal shapes